Physical Sciences

Exploring neutrinos: Entanglement, entropy, and fractional calculus

Neutrinos are elusive, strange particles that are produced in the nuclear reactions that power stars. As such, the study of neutrinos from the Sun gives us a window directly into the Sun’s core, as well as telling us more about these fundamental particles. However, neutrinos are notoriously hard to detect, so detectors like the Super-Kamiokande and Homestake solar neutrino experiments […]

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Informatics & Technology

A new generation of wearable devices for telemedicine

Wearable gadgets such as smart watches, or wristbands, represent a user-friendly and cost-effective platform for the tracking of physiological parameters, such as heart rate and blood pulse oxygenation levels. However their rigid and opaque nature hinder the development of skin-conformable sensors that provide continuous and accurate data for telemedicine. Dr Emre Ozan Polat and his team from Kadir Has University […]

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Behavioural Sciences

Technology-facilitated sexual assault of children and adolescents: A retrospective audit

Dr Jo Tully and Dr Janine Rowse of the Victorian Forensic Paediatric Medical Service (VFPMS) have undertaken a vital retrospective audit of what they have termed technology-facilitated sexual assault (TFSA) of children, where a sexual assault occurs following initial online contact. They found that TFSA forensic caseload has increased over the last 14 years. Victims were most likely to be […]

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Health & Medicine

Using genetic signatures to better classify spinal neurons

Professor Samuel Pfaff at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies builds on previous work revealing important principles related to neural development, gene regulation, axon guidance and connectivity, and spinal motor circuit function. Spinal neurons were traditionally grouped into around 12 cardinal classes – but this doesn’t describe their full diversity. Now, the Salk Institute for Biological Studies team has developed […]

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Health & Medicine

Hearing loss: who gains the most from cochlear implants?

Hearing loss can cause severe disabilities and impair daily life. Cochlear implants may be an option for those who experience extreme deafness, but there are long waiting lists for potential recipients in countries with limited healthcare options. Paula Greenham of Greenham Research Consulting has investigated what factors are most likely to result in improved quality of life for individuals requiring […]

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Business & Economics

Multiresolution forecasting for commercial processes

Dr Michael Thrun and colleagues Tino Gehlert and Quirin Stier investigated data-driven forecasting techniques for commercially relevant processes, using statistical and machine learning models to investigate future uncertainties in supply chains or call centre management. They found that the new methods, using a so-called wavelet approach – which is able to take varying seasonality into account – performed well compared […]

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Education & Training

Highlighting the need for greater equity in gifted education

Whether ability is determined by nature or nurture has preoccupied thinkers since classical times. Most now agree that ability is derived from a combination of inherited and acquired characteristics: more precisely, a combination of genetic and environmental components. Austrian gifted-education expert Dr Gundula Wagner is currently researching how class composition in schools affects gifted students’ academic outcomes. She argues that, […]

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Health & Medicine

Exosome microRNAs as liquid biopsies for the monitoring of prostate cancer

Neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) is a highly aggressive variant of prostate cancer that emerges in response to hormone therapy. Dr Sharanjot Saini and her staff, from the Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University, USA, are studying exosomes – nano-sized vesicles that transfer lipids, proteins, or genetic information between cells. These could be used as a source of biomarkers to […]

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Biology

Understanding tomato plant metabolism for sustainable production

Historically, crops have been domesticated without limiting their access to nutrients or water. Since these varieties did not need efficient nutrient absorption and distribution mechanisms, they are poorly adapted to a sustainable agricultural system which limits the need for excess fertiliser. Drs Laura Carrillo and Joaquin Medina of the Centre of Biotechnology and Genomics (CBGP) in Madrid, Spain, investigated the […]

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Behavioural Sciences

The problem of targeted sympathy in justice for sex workers

Professor Chrysanthi Leon, Associate Professor of Sociology & Criminal Justice and founding member of the Center for the Study and Prevention of Gender-based Violence at the University of Delaware, and Professor Corey Shdaimah, Daniel Thursz Distinguished Professor of Social Justice at the University of Maryland School of Social Work, research prostitution diversion programs (PDPs). These programs ostensibly offer a more […]

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