For the general hypertensive population, uncontrolled hypertension (high blood pressure) is if the systolic blood pressure (SBP) is ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) is ≥90mm Hg. For inpatients with established diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease – it’s when SBP is ≥130 mm Hg and/or DBP is ≥80mm Hg. Blood pressure results are based on the average of two or more properly measured, seated, BP readings at each of two or more office visits.
A hospital-based, cross-sectional study design was used. 421 study participants were selected using systematic random sampling. The study participants were sampled from adult hypertensive patients who had follow ups in public hospitals in Central Zone, Tigray; the data collection period was from 01 March – 30 April 2018. The participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire and assessed using a chart review checklist. Measurements were also taken. The collected data was first checked manually, and then entered into EpiData 3.1. and cleaned. The processed data was then exported to Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences, version 22, for analysis.
Bivariate and multivariable analyses were used to identify factors of uncontrolled hypertension. Variables significant at p<0.25 with the outcome variable in bivariate analysis were selected for multivariable analysis. The odds ratio of 95% confidence level was computed and p-value < 0.05 was described as a significant association in multivariable analysis.
A total of 421 respondents (201 males and 220 females) were enrolled; the mean age was 59.2 (SD 12.6), 42% of the respondents had uncontrolled hypertension. The factors significantly associated with uncontrolled hypertension were identified as: co-morbidity [AOR=0.36, (0.205, 0.631)], five to ten years’ duration of medication taken [AOR=0.398,(0.218, 0.725)], side effects of medication [AOR=0.542, (0.339, 0.866)] and medication adherence [AOR=4.092, (2.419, 6.924)].
The associated factors for uncontrolled hypertension are: co-morbidity, antihypertensive medication taken for a long duration, side effects of antihypertensive medication and non-adherence to antihypertensive medication.
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