Biology

Biomimetic assembly of multienzyme reactions on DNA nanostructures

Using DNA nanotechonology, researchers from Rutgers University-Camden have created self-assembly biomimetic systems capable of enzyme proximity immobilisation and enzyme compartmentalisation. Remarkably, these structures have proven themselves capable of forming a multi-enzyme cascade with substrate channeling and regulated reaction circuit. The potential for future applications of this research are wide-ranging and include healthcare and biomedical research to energy release and chemical […]

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Biology

Where the river meets the sea: Understanding underexplored river estuarine ecosystems

River estuaries are vital bodies of water that provide multiple ecological services, such as nutrient cycling, climate change adaptation, and habitats for a wide range of ecologically and economically important species. In recent years, estuary habitats have been highly degraded by human activities. For this reason, their protection, restoration, and conservation are fundamental. Dr Rei Itsukushima and colleagues at the […]

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Biology

Nuclear reprogramming: From one cell type to another

Dr Kei Miyamoto from Kindai University in Japan studies how mature, differentiated cells from one individual can be transferred into egg cells from another and reprogrammed to develop into a clone of the original donor animal. This has implications for animal cloning, such as in endangered species or prized livestock lines. Furthermore, studying reprogramming leads to a better understanding of […]

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Biology

How a minority can swiftly shape collective actions

Understanding how groups of animals react to sudden threats has eluded researchers for many years and previous models failed to provide a mechanism for how social information can disseminate quickly through the ranks. For the past ten years, Dr Bertrand Lemasson, based at the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center in Oregon, USA, has studied how and when an individual’s actions within […]

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Biology

DNA replication: Unravelling the secrets of the replisome

Every cell needs to divide and produce more cells. This is an essential part of every living organism. The first step is to make a copy of its own DNA to pass on to daughter cells. This is known as DNA replication and has been the focus of Professor Michael O’Donnell’s lab for many years. The team, based at The Rockefeller University, New […]

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Biology

Fishes in the lower Congo River. An extreme case of species divergence and convergent evolution

In its lower reaches the Congo River is the world’s fastest and deepest river, and this short stretch hosts great biological diversity. Many fishes inhabiting the lower Congo River display adaptations to life in such an extreme environment, and often similar adaptations have arisen in fishes distant from each other on the tree of life. Professor Melanie Stiassny, along with […]

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Biology

A hitherto unseen matrix involved in cell division is revealed

Cell division has been fascinating researchers for decades. This process could not occur without the spindle to organise the chromosomes neatly in two sets, one for each daughter cell. It’s commonly accepted that the spindle is formed by a series of filaments that puts chromosomes into place, but there may be more to it than that. This is certainly the […]

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Biology

Advances in CNS drug development

The global prevalence of diseases affecting the central nervous system (CNS) demands the development of efficacious therapies for these unmet needs. However, drug development for CNS diseases is complicated by a limited ability to measure whether a drug candidate is accessing and affecting the human brain, particularly in early-stage human trials. Research by Dr Eugenii (Ilan) Rabiner and his colleagues: Dr […]

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Biology

Are wildfires following bark beetles more severe?

Bark beetles are responsible for large numbers of dead trees in ponderosa pine forests in the United States. The relationship between tree mortality caused by bark beetles and increasingly severe wildfires has been analysed by Carolyn Sieg and colleagues using a detailed physics-based fire behaviour model. The team seeks to understand if fires that follow beetles are more severe, that […]

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Biology

Predicting protein function and annotating complex pathways with machine learning

Dr Daisuke Kihara’s team at Purdue University have created novel computational approaches for predicting protein functions. Instead of following a one-protein-one-function approach, their algorithms can predict the functional relationships of entire groups of proteins related to a specific biological process. The team has also expanded into mining oversighted or previously unknown proteins that have multiple, independent functions. The team’s methods […]

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