Reducing risks, improving outcomes: The benefits of Patient Blood Management

Prof Kietaibl promotes patient-centred decision-making.

While blood transfusions are generally very safe and have saved millions of lives, they carry a small risk of serious side effects. These risks can be lessened through the use of Patient Blood Management (PBM), a series of interventions that seek to minimise blood loss, prevent anaemia and reduce the need for a transfusion before, during and after major surgery. […]

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Consciously calculating unconscious bias: The role of dichotomous valuation

When making a decision, the first chooser has the privilege of first-mover advantage.

Like with any choice, when faced with data selection, people are influenced by their own biases. A new research paper by econometric expert Dr Xingwei Hu of the International Monetary Fund evaluates how people subconsciously view different variables and the way this influences their decision-making. By assessing decisions through dichotomous valuation, Dr Hu is able to show the extent to […]

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Social dilemmas reveal selective inattention in indirect reciprocity

Our decisions whether or not to cooperate with a stranger rely on reputation.

Cooperation with others generates prosperity within human society, yet research into the evolution of cooperation, particularly indirect reciprocity, has left much unexplained. Indirect reciprocity involves assessment rules and draws on moral judgment. Most studies assume that people will consider all the information available to them before deciding whether to cooperate. Dr Isamu Okada, Associate Professor at Soka University, Japan, has […]

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Choice‑making and choose‑ables: Making decision agents more choosy

choice-making for AI

Dr Lorraine Dodd, from Cranfield University, examines the Artificial Intelligence approach to modelling a decision agent’s choice-making. She explores the factors affecting an adaptive agent’s freedom of decision-making and investigates factors that can shape, extend, limit or re-focus an agent’s potential in terms of their ways forward. Dr Dodd also discusses the higher-order concept of choice-making that she refers to […]

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Creative or destructive: The perspective may be a matter of convenience

Creative or destructive: The perspective may be a matter of convenience

Creativity is largely understood as the production of novel and useful ideas or things. In this article, we look at the research of Chetan Walia, who argues for a new dynamic definition of creativity in order to better understand the difference between creativity, creator, and creation. This new dynamic definition will allow us to more effectively consider how negative creativity […]

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Opinion dynamics and consensus in social networks

Denis Fedyanin and Alexander Chkhartishvili are researchers at the V.A. Trapeznikov Institute of Control Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow. They use statistical modelling of social network structures to simulate opinion dynamics and decision making. Their recent work focuses on a consensus analysis of complex social network structures. The development of online social networks together with their influence on […]

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